Psych terms:Opponent process theory, activity theory vs continuity, etc.

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lotus0618
Posts: 182
Joined: Sun Dec 29, 2019 5:47 pm

Psych terms:Opponent process theory, activity theory vs continuity, etc.

Post by lotus0618 » Mon Jul 06, 2020 5:29 pm

1. Difference b/t Opponent process theory vs trichromatic theory? example of each?
2. What’s “early development trajectory”?
3. What’s pluralism?
4. Differences b/t activity vs continuity theory? examples?
5. Differences b/t racialization and racial formation theory? examples?
6. Differences b/t World-systems theory, modernization theory, and dependency theory?

thank you!
NS_Tutor_Nancy
Posts: 48
Joined: Wed May 27, 2020 7:25 pm

Re: Psych terms:Opponent process theory, activity theory vs continuity, etc.

Post by NS_Tutor_Nancy » Thu Jul 09, 2020 2:55 pm

Hi,

1)
- Opponent Process Theory is the idea that we perceive color in opposing systems (yellow v. blue, red v. green, and black v. white). You can only detect one opposing color at a time, so while you can see a reddish yellow (orange), you can't perceive a reddish green. This theory describes how nerve cells perceive color in the brain (whereas the trichromatic theory below is talking about receptors)
- Trichromatic Theory is saying that we have three classes of cone receptors to allow for color vision (red, green, blue cones). This theory explains how each different receptor receives inputs from different wavelengths of light.

2)
This isn't a psych/soc term per se that is definable. If you came across this, it was likely referring to early childhood development and expected milestones/order of development, or the "trajectory."

3)
Pluralism refers to when multiple groups, ideas, principles, etc. coexist. It is often used in political contexts.

4)
- Activity theory is a theory of aging that says people age better when they stay active and maintain social interactions. (ex: a 70 year old woman who has volunteers at the library a couple days a week, has grandchildren nearby who visit her frequently, is an active member of the local senior center, etc. would be predicted to be healthier (physically/emotionally) than a 70 year old woman who has no family nearby, is no longer working, and has no regular activities to get her out of the house.)
- Continuity theory is also a theory of aging, but slightly different. It says people age better when they continue activities/behaviors/relationships from earlier in life. (ex: a marathon runner still goes for a light jog as they age, they stay in touch with their old college roommate, etc.)

5)
- Racialization is the process by which a group is defined by their race and certain stereotypes that may be associated with that race.
- Racial formation theory is the idea of race as a construct to which social/cultural factors have contributed. It looks at race as a more fluid/dynamic concept as opposed to purely genetic.

6)
- World-systems theory looks at history/social change on a global level where some countries dominate/exploit others and some countries are dependent on others.
- Modernization theory is just describing the process of a nation/country transitioning from a traditional society (agriculture, bartering, etc.) to a modern one.
- Dependency theory is realted to the world-systems theory but specifically looks at the flow of resources. Resources from underdeveloped poor "periphery" nations flow to wealthier "core" nations that produce goods and benefit at periphery nations expense.

I hope this helps!
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