Psychology terms: Differences between them? Example for each please?

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lotus0618
Posts: 182
Joined: Sun Dec 29, 2019 5:47 pm

Psychology terms: Differences between them? Example for each please?

Post by lotus0618 » Mon Jul 06, 2020 3:21 am

1. What should we know about these 2 people?
-Alfred Adler and Karen Horney
(I have never seen these terms before until now honestly)

2. What are the differences between these terms? Can you please give an example for each term?
-social desirability vs response bias vs demand characteristics vs impression management
-construct validity vs internal validity

3. What are the roles of superior and inferior colliculi in the auditory and visual pathways?

thankyou
NS_Tutor_Nancy
Posts: 48
Joined: Wed May 27, 2020 7:25 pm

Re: Psychology terms: Differences between them? Example for each please?

Post by NS_Tutor_Nancy » Thu Jul 09, 2020 2:31 pm

Hi,

1)
These are both individuals who took Freud's analytic theory, disagreed with some things, and made their own versions. Alfred Adler took an approach leaning a little more towards humanistic theories that he called "individual psychology." It emphasized that people are thinking about the future and their drives are due to goals, social factors, etc. all in the pursuit of self improvement. Karen Horney is though of as the founder of feminist psychology. She rejected Freud's idea that male and female psychology are fundamentally different as well as his theory of "penis envy." She said that any differences between males and females are based on social/cultural factors. She also emphasized the importance of these factors in neurosis (whereas Freud focused on biological factors).

2)
- Response bias refers generally to the tendency of participants to answer questions inaccurately or falsely. Social desirability bias is a particular type of response bias where participants give an answer they think will be more socially acceptable compared to the true answer (ex: A pediatrician asks a 17 year old if they consume alcohol. The teen says no, even though they drink, becuase they think this is the more socially acceptable answer in the situation).
- Demand characteristics refers to any clues that the participant may pick up while participating in a study about what the experimenter expects. The participant may then be more likely to act in a way they think is expected. (ex: A study wants a participant to interact with 2 prototypes and then choose the best. One prototype looks more finished and the experimenter spends longer talking about it's good qualities. The participant assumes this is the prototype the experimenter put more work into and the one that the experimenter wants the participant to pick, so they pick that one.)
- Impression management is a conscious/subconscious process of trying to influence other's perceptions about things, places, people (including you), etc. (ex: you just started a new job. You go out of your way to give your new coworkers compliments, you stock the fridge with snacks to share, etc. to try to get them to perceive you as nice/friendly.)
- Construct validity refers to whether a test measures what is is supposed to measure. (ex: You are working for a company and just developed a new cognitive aptitude test. In the testing phase, you have participants take your new test and a few other already existing accepted cognitive aptitude tests. If the results from your new test differ drastically to all the existing ones, maybe your new test isn't actually measuring cognitive aptitude very well.)
-Internal validity refers to whether a piece of evidence is able to support a cause/effect claim in a study. (ex: you do random sampling and try to control for all confounding variables in an experiment to increase internal validity, meaning that whatever findings/evidence you get better supports your claim.)

3)
The superior and inferior colliculi help integrate signals and direct head/eye movements towards stimuli. Visual information goes to the superior colliculus and auditory information goes to the inferior colliculus.

I hope that helps!
lotus0618
Posts: 182
Joined: Sun Dec 29, 2019 5:47 pm

Re: Psychology terms: Differences between them? Example for each please?

Post by lotus0618 » Sun Jul 12, 2020 7:40 pm

1) In regard to the slightly modified version of the Freud theory by Alfred, how is his theory different from the humanistic theory then? is it because he believes that their drives are due to NOT ONLY goals, social factors BUT also psychologically affected by their childhood conflicts?
NS_Tutor_Nancy
Posts: 48
Joined: Wed May 27, 2020 7:25 pm

Re: Psychology terms: Differences between them? Example for each please?

Post by NS_Tutor_Nancy » Thu Jul 16, 2020 10:16 am

Hey!

Alfred Adler would be considered an individual whose views fall within humanistic theory. As a person, specifically he followed Freud and then developed these more humanistic theories as a result in rejection of some of Freud's ideas. It is not so much humanistic vs. Adler, but more that Adler falls under the humanistic umbrella / contributed to the humanistic umbrella.

I hope this helps.
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