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AAMC sample test P/S #22
Posted: Thu Sep 05, 2019 2:41 pm
How do we approach this question, find out what the hypothesis is and then?
Re: AAMC sample test P/S #22
Posted: Mon Sep 09, 2019 6:39 pm
If we want to show that A causes B, we have to show prove a change in A leads to a change in B, but also provide a way to falsify our hypothesis - a way to potentially prove ourselves wrong.
Study design B suggests introducing a change in frustration (control: not frustrated, get to play with toy - treatment: frustrated, don't get to play with toy, but see it). The dependent variable, hurt button pushes in the subsequent game, remains the same. Recall that the question stem asks only to test the hypothesis, not to prove it, and this would be an effective test. If the frustrated group pushes 'hurt' significantly more, the hypothesis has not been disproven. If there is no difference or even an inverse relationship, then the hypothesis of the question stem has been tested and disproven.
Study design A does not in any way address frustration.
Study design C only measures frustration levels after both playing the game and having undergone phase 1 of study 1, which is the wrong sort of temporal relation to establish a causal relationship.
Study design D would establish a correlation with arousal and that is about it. It doesn't even effectively operationalize (make measurable) frustration.