A student asks, "I don't understand how construct validity cannot also be correct?"
It can be challenging in the P/S section to figure out on what grounds a particular study can be criticized, because distinguishing between different forms of validity can be tricky. In this particular question, we are told that the criticism is aimed at the difference between the conditions in the fake prison used in the study versus the conditions in a real prison. Ecological validity refers to the extent to which a study is applicable in the broader world. In other words, ecological validity has to do with how the experiment actually applies in the environment or in the real world.
Construct validity, on the other hand, has to do with measurements or tests. It is the degree to which a test is an accurate and legitimate measure of what it claims to measure. The key point is that construct validity concerns a measurement or a test. Because the question stem directly points to differences between the experiment and actual prison conditions (and not to a test or measurement), we can rule out construct validity.
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